Struct zebra_chain::block::merkle::Root

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pub struct Root(pub [u8; 32]);
Expand description

The root of the Bitcoin-inherited transaction Merkle tree, binding the block header to the transactions in the block.

Note: for V5-onward transactions it does not bind to authorizing data (signature and proofs) which makes it non-malleable ZIP-244.

Note that because of a flaw in Bitcoin’s design, the merkle_root does not always precisely bind the contents of the block (CVE-2012-2459). It is sometimes possible for an attacker to create multiple distinct sets of transactions with the same Merkle root, although only one set will be valid.

§Malleability

The Bitcoin source code contains the following note:

WARNING! If you’re reading this because you’re learning about crypto and/or designing a new system that will use merkle trees, keep in mind that the following merkle tree algorithm has a serious flaw related to duplicate txids, resulting in a vulnerability (CVE-2012-2459). The reason is that if the number of hashes in the list at a given time is odd, the last one is duplicated before computing the next level (which is unusual in Merkle trees). This results in certain sequences of transactions leading to the same merkle root. For example, these two trees:

             A               A
           /  \            /   \
         B     C         B       C
        / \    |        / \     / \
       D   E   F       D   E   F   F
      / \ / \ / \     / \ / \ / \ / \
      1 2 3 4 5 6     1 2 3 4 5 6 5 6

for transaction lists [1,2,3,4,5,6] and [1,2,3,4,5,6,5,6] (where 5 and 6 are repeated) result in the same root hash A (because the hash of both of (F) and (F,F) is C).

The vulnerability results from being able to send a block with such a transaction list, with the same merkle root, and the same block hash as the original without duplication, resulting in failed validation. If the receiving node proceeds to mark that block as permanently invalid however, it will fail to accept further unmodified (and thus potentially valid) versions of the same block. We defend against this by detecting the case where we would hash two identical hashes at the end of the list together, and treating that identically to the block having an invalid merkle root. Assuming no double-SHA256 collisions, this will detect all known ways of changing the transactions without affecting the merkle root.

This vulnerability does not apply to Zebra, because it does not store invalid data on disk, and because it does not permanently fail blocks or use an aggressive anti-DoS mechanism.

Tuple Fields§

§0: [u8; 32]

Implementations§

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impl Root

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pub fn bytes_in_display_order(&self) -> [u8; 32]

Return the hash bytes in big-endian byte-order suitable for printing out byte by byte.

Zebra displays transaction and block hashes in big-endian byte-order, following the u256 convention set by Bitcoin and zcashd.

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pub fn from_bytes_in_display_order(bytes_in_display_order: &[u8; 32]) -> Root

Convert bytes in big-endian byte-order into a merkle::Root.

Zebra displays transaction and block hashes in big-endian byte-order, following the u256 convention set by Bitcoin and zcashd.

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impl Arbitrary for Root

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type Parameters = <[u8; 32] as Arbitrary>::Parameters

The type of parameters that arbitrary_with accepts for configuration of the generated Strategy. Parameters must implement Default.
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type Strategy = Map<<[u8; 32] as Arbitrary>::Strategy, fn(_: [u8; 32]) -> Root>

The type of Strategy used to generate values of type Self.
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fn arbitrary_with(_top: Self::Parameters) -> Self::Strategy

Generates a Strategy for producing arbitrary values of type the implementing type (Self). The strategy is passed the arguments given in args. Read more
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fn arbitrary() -> Self::Strategy

Generates a Strategy for producing arbitrary values of type the implementing type (Self). Read more
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impl Clone for Root

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fn clone(&self) -> Root

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl Debug for Root

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl Default for Root

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fn default() -> Root

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more
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impl<'de> Deserialize<'de> for Root

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fn deserialize<__D>(__deserializer: __D) -> Result<Self, __D::Error>
where __D: Deserializer<'de>,

Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more
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impl From<[u8; 32]> for Root

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fn from(hash: [u8; 32]) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl From<Root> for [u8; 32]

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fn from(hash: Root) -> Self

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl FromHex for Root

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type Error = <[u8; 32] as FromHex>::Error

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fn from_hex<T: AsRef<[u8]>>(hex: T) -> Result<Self, Self::Error>

Creates an instance of type Self from the given hex string, or fails with a custom error type. Read more
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impl FromIterator<Hash> for Root

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fn from_iter<I>(hashes: I) -> Self
where I: IntoIterator<Item = Hash>,

§Panics

When there are no transactions in the iterator. This is impossible, because every block must have a coinbase transaction.

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impl<T> FromIterator<T> for Root
where T: AsRef<Transaction>,

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fn from_iter<I>(transactions: I) -> Self
where I: IntoIterator<Item = T>,

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
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impl FromIterator<UnminedTx> for Root

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fn from_iter<I>(transactions: I) -> Self
where I: IntoIterator<Item = UnminedTx>,

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
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impl FromIterator<UnminedTxId> for Root

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fn from_iter<I>(tx_ids: I) -> Self
where I: IntoIterator<Item = UnminedTxId>,

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
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impl FromIterator<VerifiedUnminedTx> for Root

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fn from_iter<I>(transactions: I) -> Self

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
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impl PartialEq for Root

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fn eq(&self, other: &Root) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl Serialize for Root

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fn serialize<__S>(&self, __serializer: __S) -> Result<__S::Ok, __S::Error>
where __S: Serializer,

Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more
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impl ToHex for &Root

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fn encode_hex<T: FromIterator<char>>(&self) -> T

Encode the hex strict representing self into the result. Lower case letters are used (e.g. f9b4ca)
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fn encode_hex_upper<T: FromIterator<char>>(&self) -> T

Encode the hex strict representing self into the result. Upper case letters are used (e.g. F9B4CA)
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impl ToHex for Root

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fn encode_hex<T: FromIterator<char>>(&self) -> T

Encode the hex strict representing self into the result. Lower case letters are used (e.g. f9b4ca)
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fn encode_hex_upper<T: FromIterator<char>>(&self) -> T

Encode the hex strict representing self into the result. Upper case letters are used (e.g. F9B4CA)
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impl Copy for Root

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impl Eq for Root

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impl StructuralPartialEq for Root

Auto Trait Implementations§

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impl Freeze for Root

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impl RefUnwindSafe for Root

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impl Send for Root

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impl Sync for Root

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impl Unpin for Root

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impl UnwindSafe for Root

Blanket Implementations§

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impl<T> Any for T
where T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> Conv for T

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fn conv<T>(self) -> T
where Self: Into<T>,

Converts self into T using Into<T>. Read more
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Checks if this value is equivalent to the given key. Read more
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.
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impl<T> FmtForward for T

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fn fmt_binary(self) -> FmtBinary<Self>
where Self: Binary,

Causes self to use its Binary implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_display(self) -> FmtDisplay<Self>
where Self: Display,

Causes self to use its Display implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_lower_exp(self) -> FmtLowerExp<Self>
where Self: LowerExp,

Causes self to use its LowerExp implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_lower_hex(self) -> FmtLowerHex<Self>
where Self: LowerHex,

Causes self to use its LowerHex implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_octal(self) -> FmtOctal<Self>
where Self: Octal,

Causes self to use its Octal implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_pointer(self) -> FmtPointer<Self>
where Self: Pointer,

Causes self to use its Pointer implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_upper_exp(self) -> FmtUpperExp<Self>
where Self: UpperExp,

Causes self to use its UpperExp implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_upper_hex(self) -> FmtUpperHex<Self>
where Self: UpperHex,

Causes self to use its UpperHex implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_list(self) -> FmtList<Self>
where &'a Self: for<'a> IntoIterator,

Formats each item in a sequence. Read more
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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<T> Instrument for T

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fn instrument(self, span: Span) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the provided [Span], returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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fn in_current_span(self) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the current Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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impl<T> Instrument for T

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fn instrument(self, span: Span) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the provided Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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fn in_current_span(self) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the current Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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impl<T, U> Into<U> for T
where U: From<T>,

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fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T> IntoEither for T

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fn into_either(self, into_left: bool) -> Either<Self, Self>

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left is true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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fn into_either_with<F>(self, into_left: F) -> Either<Self, Self>
where F: FnOnce(&Self) -> bool,

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left(&self) returns true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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impl<D> OwoColorize for D

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fn fg<C>(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, C, Self>
where C: Color,

Set the foreground color generically Read more
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fn bg<C>(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, C, Self>
where C: Color,

Set the background color generically. Read more
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fn black<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Black, Self>

Change the foreground color to black
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fn on_black<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Black, Self>

Change the background color to black
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fn red<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Red, Self>

Change the foreground color to red
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fn on_red<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Red, Self>

Change the background color to red
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fn green<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Green, Self>

Change the foreground color to green
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fn on_green<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Green, Self>

Change the background color to green
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fn yellow<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Yellow, Self>

Change the foreground color to yellow
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fn on_yellow<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Yellow, Self>

Change the background color to yellow
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fn blue<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Blue, Self>

Change the foreground color to blue
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fn on_blue<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Blue, Self>

Change the background color to blue
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fn magenta<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Magenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to magenta
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fn on_magenta<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Magenta, Self>

Change the background color to magenta
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fn purple<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Magenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to purple
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fn on_purple<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Magenta, Self>

Change the background color to purple
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fn cyan<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Cyan, Self>

Change the foreground color to cyan
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fn on_cyan<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Cyan, Self>

Change the background color to cyan
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fn white<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, White, Self>

Change the foreground color to white
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fn on_white<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, White, Self>

Change the background color to white
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fn default_color<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, Default, Self>

Change the foreground color to the terminal default
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fn on_default_color<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, Default, Self>

Change the background color to the terminal default
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fn bright_black<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightBlack, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright black
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fn on_bright_black<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightBlack, Self>

Change the background color to bright black
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fn bright_red<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightRed, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright red
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fn on_bright_red<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightRed, Self>

Change the background color to bright red
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fn bright_green<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightGreen, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright green
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fn on_bright_green<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightGreen, Self>

Change the background color to bright green
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fn bright_yellow<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightYellow, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright yellow
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fn on_bright_yellow<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightYellow, Self>

Change the background color to bright yellow
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fn bright_blue<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightBlue, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright blue
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fn on_bright_blue<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightBlue, Self>

Change the background color to bright blue
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fn bright_magenta<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright magenta
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fn on_bright_magenta<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the background color to bright magenta
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fn bright_purple<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright purple
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fn on_bright_purple<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the background color to bright purple
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fn bright_cyan<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightCyan, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright cyan
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fn on_bright_cyan<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightCyan, Self>

Change the background color to bright cyan
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fn bright_white<'a>(&'a self) -> FgColorDisplay<'a, BrightWhite, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright white
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fn on_bright_white<'a>(&'a self) -> BgColorDisplay<'a, BrightWhite, Self>

Change the background color to bright white
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fn bold<'a>(&'a self) -> BoldDisplay<'a, Self>

Make the text bold
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fn dimmed<'a>(&'a self) -> DimDisplay<'a, Self>

Make the text dim
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fn italic<'a>(&'a self) -> ItalicDisplay<'a, Self>

Make the text italicized
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fn underline<'a>(&'a self) -> UnderlineDisplay<'a, Self>

Make the text italicized
Make the text blink
Make the text blink (but fast!)
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fn reversed<'a>(&'a self) -> ReversedDisplay<'a, Self>

Swap the foreground and background colors
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fn hidden<'a>(&'a self) -> HiddenDisplay<'a, Self>

Hide the text
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fn strikethrough<'a>(&'a self) -> StrikeThroughDisplay<'a, Self>

Cross out the text
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fn color<Color>(&self, color: Color) -> FgDynColorDisplay<'_, Color, Self>
where Color: DynColor,

Set the foreground color at runtime. Only use if you do not know which color will be used at compile-time. If the color is constant, use either OwoColorize::fg or a color-specific method, such as OwoColorize::green, Read more
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fn on_color<Color>(&self, color: Color) -> BgDynColorDisplay<'_, Color, Self>
where Color: DynColor,

Set the background color at runtime. Only use if you do not know what color to use at compile-time. If the color is constant, use either OwoColorize::bg or a color-specific method, such as OwoColorize::on_yellow, Read more
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fn fg_rgb<const R: u8, const G: u8, const B: u8>( &self, ) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, CustomColor<R, G, B>, Self>

Set the foreground color to a specific RGB value.
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fn bg_rgb<const R: u8, const G: u8, const B: u8>( &self, ) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, CustomColor<R, G, B>, Self>

Set the background color to a specific RGB value.
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fn truecolor(&self, r: u8, g: u8, b: u8) -> FgDynColorDisplay<'_, Rgb, Self>

Sets the foreground color to an RGB value.
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fn on_truecolor(&self, r: u8, g: u8, b: u8) -> BgDynColorDisplay<'_, Rgb, Self>

Sets the background color to an RGB value.
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fn style(&self, style: Style) -> Styled<&Self>

Apply a runtime-determined style
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impl<D> OwoColorize for D

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fn fg<C>(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, C, Self>
where C: Color,

Set the foreground color generically Read more
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fn bg<C>(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, C, Self>
where C: Color,

Set the background color generically. Read more
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fn black(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Black, Self>

Change the foreground color to black
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fn on_black(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Black, Self>

Change the background color to black
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fn red(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Red, Self>

Change the foreground color to red
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fn on_red(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Red, Self>

Change the background color to red
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fn green(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Green, Self>

Change the foreground color to green
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fn on_green(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Green, Self>

Change the background color to green
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fn yellow(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Yellow, Self>

Change the foreground color to yellow
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fn on_yellow(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Yellow, Self>

Change the background color to yellow
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fn blue(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Blue, Self>

Change the foreground color to blue
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fn on_blue(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Blue, Self>

Change the background color to blue
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fn magenta(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Magenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to magenta
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fn on_magenta(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Magenta, Self>

Change the background color to magenta
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fn purple(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Magenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to purple
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fn on_purple(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Magenta, Self>

Change the background color to purple
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fn cyan(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Cyan, Self>

Change the foreground color to cyan
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fn on_cyan(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Cyan, Self>

Change the background color to cyan
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fn white(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, White, Self>

Change the foreground color to white
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fn on_white(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, White, Self>

Change the background color to white
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fn default_color(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, Default, Self>

Change the foreground color to the terminal default
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fn on_default_color(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, Default, Self>

Change the background color to the terminal default
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fn bright_black(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightBlack, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright black
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fn on_bright_black(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightBlack, Self>

Change the background color to bright black
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fn bright_red(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightRed, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright red
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fn on_bright_red(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightRed, Self>

Change the background color to bright red
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fn bright_green(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightGreen, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright green
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fn on_bright_green(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightGreen, Self>

Change the background color to bright green
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fn bright_yellow(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightYellow, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright yellow
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fn on_bright_yellow(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightYellow, Self>

Change the background color to bright yellow
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fn bright_blue(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightBlue, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright blue
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fn on_bright_blue(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightBlue, Self>

Change the background color to bright blue
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fn bright_magenta(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright magenta
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fn on_bright_magenta(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the background color to bright magenta
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fn bright_purple(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright purple
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fn on_bright_purple(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightMagenta, Self>

Change the background color to bright purple
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fn bright_cyan(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightCyan, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright cyan
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fn on_bright_cyan(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightCyan, Self>

Change the background color to bright cyan
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fn bright_white(&self) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, BrightWhite, Self>

Change the foreground color to bright white
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fn on_bright_white(&self) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, BrightWhite, Self>

Change the background color to bright white
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fn bold(&self) -> BoldDisplay<'_, Self>

Make the text bold
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fn dimmed(&self) -> DimDisplay<'_, Self>

Make the text dim
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fn italic(&self) -> ItalicDisplay<'_, Self>

Make the text italicized
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fn underline(&self) -> UnderlineDisplay<'_, Self>

Make the text italicized
Make the text blink
Make the text blink (but fast!)
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fn reversed(&self) -> ReversedDisplay<'_, Self>

Swap the foreground and background colors
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fn hidden(&self) -> HiddenDisplay<'_, Self>

Hide the text
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fn strikethrough(&self) -> StrikeThroughDisplay<'_, Self>

Cross out the text
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fn color<Color>(&self, color: Color) -> FgDynColorDisplay<'_, Color, Self>
where Color: DynColor,

Set the foreground color at runtime. Only use if you do not know which color will be used at compile-time. If the color is constant, use either OwoColorize::fg or a color-specific method, such as OwoColorize::green, Read more
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fn on_color<Color>(&self, color: Color) -> BgDynColorDisplay<'_, Color, Self>
where Color: DynColor,

Set the background color at runtime. Only use if you do not know what color to use at compile-time. If the color is constant, use either OwoColorize::bg or a color-specific method, such as OwoColorize::on_yellow, Read more
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fn fg_rgb<const R: u8, const G: u8, const B: u8>( &self, ) -> FgColorDisplay<'_, CustomColor<R, G, B>, Self>

Set the foreground color to a specific RGB value.
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fn bg_rgb<const R: u8, const G: u8, const B: u8>( &self, ) -> BgColorDisplay<'_, CustomColor<R, G, B>, Self>

Set the background color to a specific RGB value.
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fn truecolor(&self, r: u8, g: u8, b: u8) -> FgDynColorDisplay<'_, Rgb, Self>

Sets the foreground color to an RGB value.
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fn on_truecolor(&self, r: u8, g: u8, b: u8) -> BgDynColorDisplay<'_, Rgb, Self>

Sets the background color to an RGB value.
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fn style(&self, style: Style) -> Styled<&Self>

Apply a runtime-determined style
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impl<T> Pipe for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn pipe<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(Self) -> R) -> R
where Self: Sized,

Pipes by value. This is generally the method you want to use. Read more
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fn pipe_ref<'a, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a Self) -> R) -> R
where R: 'a,

Borrows self and passes that borrow into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_ref_mut<'a, R>(&'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut Self) -> R) -> R
where R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self and passes that borrow into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_borrow<'a, B, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a B) -> R) -> R
where Self: Borrow<B>, B: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Borrows self, then passes self.borrow() into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_borrow_mut<'a, B, R>( &'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut B) -> R, ) -> R
where Self: BorrowMut<B>, B: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self, then passes self.borrow_mut() into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_as_ref<'a, U, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a U) -> R) -> R
where Self: AsRef<U>, U: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Borrows self, then passes self.as_ref() into the pipe function.
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fn pipe_as_mut<'a, U, R>(&'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut U) -> R) -> R
where Self: AsMut<U>, U: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self, then passes self.as_mut() into the pipe function.
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fn pipe_deref<'a, T, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a T) -> R) -> R
where Self: Deref<Target = T>, T: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Borrows self, then passes self.deref() into the pipe function.
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fn pipe_deref_mut<'a, T, R>( &'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut T) -> R, ) -> R
where Self: DerefMut<Target = T> + Deref, T: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self, then passes self.deref_mut() into the pipe function.
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impl<T> Pointable for T

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const ALIGN: usize = _

The alignment of pointer.
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type Init = T

The type for initializers.
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unsafe fn init(init: <T as Pointable>::Init) -> usize

Initializes a with the given initializer. Read more
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unsafe fn deref<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a T

Dereferences the given pointer. Read more
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unsafe fn deref_mut<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a mut T

Mutably dereferences the given pointer. Read more
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unsafe fn drop(ptr: usize)

Drops the object pointed to by the given pointer. Read more
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impl<Response, Error> ResponseResult<Response, Error> for Response

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fn into_result(self) -> Result<Response, Error>

Converts the type into a Result that can be sent as a response.
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impl<T> Same for T

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type Output = T

Should always be Self
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impl<T> Tap for T

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fn tap(self, func: impl FnOnce(&Self)) -> Self

Immutable access to a value. Read more
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fn tap_mut(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut Self)) -> Self

Mutable access to a value. Read more
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fn tap_borrow<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&B)) -> Self
where Self: Borrow<B>, B: ?Sized,

Immutable access to the Borrow<B> of a value. Read more
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fn tap_borrow_mut<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut B)) -> Self
where Self: BorrowMut<B>, B: ?Sized,

Mutable access to the BorrowMut<B> of a value. Read more
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fn tap_ref<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&R)) -> Self
where Self: AsRef<R>, R: ?Sized,

Immutable access to the AsRef<R> view of a value. Read more
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fn tap_ref_mut<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut R)) -> Self
where Self: AsMut<R>, R: ?Sized,

Mutable access to the AsMut<R> view of a value. Read more
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fn tap_deref<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&T)) -> Self
where Self: Deref<Target = T>, T: ?Sized,

Immutable access to the Deref::Target of a value. Read more
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fn tap_deref_mut<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut T)) -> Self
where Self: DerefMut<Target = T> + Deref, T: ?Sized,

Mutable access to the Deref::Target of a value. Read more
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fn tap_dbg(self, func: impl FnOnce(&Self)) -> Self

Calls .tap() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_mut_dbg(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut Self)) -> Self

Calls .tap_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_borrow_dbg<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&B)) -> Self
where Self: Borrow<B>, B: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_borrow() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_borrow_mut_dbg<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut B)) -> Self
where Self: BorrowMut<B>, B: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_borrow_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_ref_dbg<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&R)) -> Self
where Self: AsRef<R>, R: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_ref() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_ref_mut_dbg<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut R)) -> Self
where Self: AsMut<R>, R: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_ref_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_deref_dbg<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&T)) -> Self
where Self: Deref<Target = T>, T: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_deref() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_deref_mut_dbg<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut T)) -> Self
where Self: DerefMut<Target = T> + Deref, T: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_deref_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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impl<T> ToOwned for T
where T: Clone,

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type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T> TryConv for T

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fn try_conv<T>(self) -> Result<T, Self::Error>
where Self: TryInto<T>,

Attempts to convert self into T using TryInto<T>. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T
where U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T
where U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<V, T> VZip<V> for T
where V: MultiLane<T>,

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fn vzip(self) -> V

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impl<T> WithSubscriber for T

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fn with_subscriber<S>(self, subscriber: S) -> WithDispatch<Self>
where S: Into<Dispatch>,

Attaches the provided Subscriber to this type, returning a [WithDispatch] wrapper. Read more
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fn with_current_subscriber(self) -> WithDispatch<Self>

Attaches the current default Subscriber to this type, returning a [WithDispatch] wrapper. Read more
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impl<T> WithSubscriber for T

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fn with_subscriber<S>(self, subscriber: S) -> WithDispatch<Self>
where S: Into<Dispatch>,

Attaches the provided Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more
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fn with_current_subscriber(self) -> WithDispatch<Self>

Attaches the current default Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more
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impl<T> DeserializeOwned for T
where T: for<'de> Deserialize<'de>,