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//! Zebra Mempool crawler.
//!
//! The [`Crawler`] periodically requests transactions from peers in order to populate the mempool.
//!
//! Crawling only happens when the local node has synchronized the chain to be close to its tip. If
//! synchronization is still happening at a fast rate, the crawler will stay disabled until it
//! slows down.
//!
//! Once enabled, the crawler will periodically request [`FANOUT`] number of peers for transactions
//! from the `peer_set` specified when it started. These crawl iterations occur at most once per
//! [`RATE_LIMIT_DELAY`]. The received transaction IDs are forwarded to the `mempool` service so
//! that they can be downloaded and included in the mempool.
//!
//! # Example
//!
//! ```
//! use zebrad::components::mempool;
//! #
//! # use zebra_chain::parameters::Network;
//! # use zebra_state::ChainTipSender;
//! # use zebra_test::mock_service::MockService;
//! # use zebrad::components::sync::SyncStatus;
//! #
//! # let runtime = tokio::runtime::Builder::new_current_thread()
//! #     .enable_all()
//! #     .build()
//! #     .expect("Failed to create Tokio runtime");
//! # let _guard = runtime.enter();
//! #
//! # let peer_set_service = MockService::build().for_unit_tests();
//! # let mempool_service = MockService::build().for_unit_tests();
//! # let (sync_status, _) = SyncStatus::new();
//! # let (_, _, chain_tip_change) = ChainTipSender::new(None, Network::Mainnet);
//!
//! let crawler_task = mempool::Crawler::spawn(
//!     &mempool::Config::default(),
//!     peer_set_service,
//!     mempool_service,
//!     sync_status,
//!     chain_tip_change,
//! );
//!
//! # // Won't actually crawl because the sender endpoint of `sync_status` was dropped immediately
//! # // when it was created.
//! # runtime.block_on(async move {
//! crawler_task.await;
//! # });
//! ```

use std::{collections::HashSet, time::Duration};

use futures::{future, pin_mut, stream::FuturesUnordered, StreamExt};
use tokio::{sync::watch, task::JoinHandle, time::sleep};
use tower::{timeout::Timeout, BoxError, Service, ServiceExt};
use tracing_futures::Instrument;

use zebra_chain::{block::Height, transaction::UnminedTxId};
use zebra_network as zn;
use zebra_node_services::mempool::Gossip;
use zebra_state::ChainTipChange;

use crate::components::{
    mempool::{self, Config},
    sync::SyncStatus,
};

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests;

/// The number of peers to request transactions from per crawl event.
const FANOUT: usize = 3;

/// The delay between crawl events.
///
/// This should be less than the target block interval,
/// so that we crawl peer mempools at least once per block.
///
/// Using a prime number makes sure that mempool crawler fanouts
/// don't synchronise with other crawls.
const RATE_LIMIT_DELAY: Duration = Duration::from_secs(73);

/// The time to wait for a peer response.
///
/// # Correctness
///
/// If this timeout is removed or set too high, the crawler may hang waiting for a peer to respond.
///
/// If this timeout is set too low, the crawler may fail to populate the mempool.
const PEER_RESPONSE_TIMEOUT: Duration = Duration::from_secs(6);

/// The mempool transaction crawler.
pub struct Crawler<PeerSet, Mempool> {
    /// The network peer set to crawl.
    peer_set: Timeout<PeerSet>,

    /// The mempool service that receives crawled transaction IDs.
    mempool: Mempool,

    /// Allows checking if we are near the tip to enable/disable the mempool crawler.
    sync_status: SyncStatus,

    /// Notifies the crawler when the best chain tip height changes.
    chain_tip_change: ChainTipChange,

    /// If the state's best chain tip has reached this height, always enable the mempool crawler.
    debug_enable_at_height: Option<Height>,
}

impl<PeerSet, Mempool> Crawler<PeerSet, Mempool>
where
    PeerSet:
        Service<zn::Request, Response = zn::Response, Error = BoxError> + Clone + Send + 'static,
    PeerSet::Future: Send,
    Mempool:
        Service<mempool::Request, Response = mempool::Response, Error = BoxError> + Send + 'static,
    Mempool::Future: Send,
{
    /// Spawn an asynchronous task to run the mempool crawler.
    pub fn spawn(
        config: &Config,
        peer_set: PeerSet,
        mempool: Mempool,
        sync_status: SyncStatus,
        chain_tip_change: ChainTipChange,
    ) -> JoinHandle<Result<(), BoxError>> {
        let crawler = Crawler {
            peer_set: Timeout::new(peer_set, PEER_RESPONSE_TIMEOUT),
            mempool,
            sync_status,
            chain_tip_change,
            debug_enable_at_height: config.debug_enable_at_height.map(Height),
        };

        tokio::spawn(crawler.run().in_current_span())
    }

    /// Waits until the mempool crawler is enabled by a debug config option.
    ///
    /// Returns an error if communication with the state is lost.
    async fn wait_until_enabled_by_debug(&mut self) -> Result<(), watch::error::RecvError> {
        // optimise non-debug performance
        if self.debug_enable_at_height.is_none() {
            return future::pending().await;
        }

        let enable_at_height = self
            .debug_enable_at_height
            .expect("unexpected debug_enable_at_height: just checked for None");

        loop {
            let best_tip_height = self
                .chain_tip_change
                .wait_for_tip_change()
                .await?
                .best_tip_height();

            if best_tip_height >= enable_at_height {
                return Ok(());
            }
        }
    }

    /// Waits until the mempool crawler is enabled.
    ///
    /// Returns an error if communication with the syncer or state is lost.
    async fn wait_until_enabled(&mut self) -> Result<(), watch::error::RecvError> {
        let mut sync_status = self.sync_status.clone();
        let tip_future = sync_status.wait_until_close_to_tip();
        let debug_future = self.wait_until_enabled_by_debug();

        pin_mut!(tip_future);
        pin_mut!(debug_future);

        let (result, _unready_future) = future::select(tip_future, debug_future)
            .await
            .factor_first();

        result
    }

    /// Periodically crawl peers for transactions to include in the mempool.
    ///
    /// Runs until the [`SyncStatus`] loses its connection to the chain syncer, which happens when
    /// Zebra is shutting down.
    pub async fn run(mut self) -> Result<(), BoxError> {
        info!("initializing mempool crawler task");

        loop {
            self.wait_until_enabled().await?;
            self.crawl_transactions().await?;
            sleep(RATE_LIMIT_DELAY).await;
        }
    }

    /// Crawl peers for transactions.
    ///
    /// Concurrently request [`FANOUT`] peers for transactions to include in the mempool.
    async fn crawl_transactions(&mut self) -> Result<(), BoxError> {
        let peer_set = self.peer_set.clone();

        trace!("Crawling for mempool transactions");

        let mut requests = FuturesUnordered::new();
        // get readiness for one peer at a time, to avoid peer set contention
        for attempt in 0..FANOUT {
            if attempt > 0 {
                // Let other tasks run, so we're more likely to choose a different peer.
                //
                // TODO: move fanouts into the PeerSet, so we always choose different peers (#2214)
                tokio::task::yield_now().await;
            }

            let mut peer_set = peer_set.clone();
            // end the task on permanent peer set errors
            let peer_set = peer_set.ready().await?;

            requests.push(peer_set.call(zn::Request::MempoolTransactionIds));
        }

        while let Some(result) = requests.next().await {
            // log individual response errors
            match result {
                Ok(response) => self.handle_response(response).await?,
                Err(error) => debug!("Failed to crawl peer for mempool transactions: {}", error),
            }
        }

        Ok(())
    }

    /// Handle a peer's response to the crawler's request for transactions.
    async fn handle_response(&mut self, response: zn::Response) -> Result<(), BoxError> {
        let transaction_ids: HashSet<_> = match response {
            zn::Response::TransactionIds(ids) => ids.into_iter().collect(),
            _ => unreachable!("Peer set did not respond with transaction IDs to mempool crawler"),
        };

        trace!(
            "Mempool crawler received {} transaction IDs",
            transaction_ids.len()
        );

        if !transaction_ids.is_empty() {
            self.queue_transactions(transaction_ids).await?;
        }

        Ok(())
    }

    /// Forward the crawled transactions IDs to the mempool transaction downloader.
    async fn queue_transactions(
        &mut self,
        transaction_ids: HashSet<UnminedTxId>,
    ) -> Result<(), BoxError> {
        let transaction_ids = transaction_ids.into_iter().map(Gossip::Id).collect();

        let call_result = self
            .mempool
            .ready()
            .await?
            .call(mempool::Request::Queue(transaction_ids))
            .await;

        let queue_errors = match call_result {
            Ok(mempool::Response::Queued(queue_results)) => {
                queue_results.into_iter().filter_map(Result::err)
            }
            Ok(_) => unreachable!("Mempool did not respond with queue results to mempool crawler"),
            Err(call_error) => {
                debug!("Ignoring unexpected peer behavior: {}", call_error);
                return Ok(());
            }
        };

        for error in queue_errors {
            debug!("Failed to download a crawled transaction: {}", error);
        }

        Ok(())
    }
}